A Survey on Cluster Head Selection in CGSR Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. Article (PDF Available) · January with Reads. This paper surveys the routing protocols forAd Hoc mobile wireless Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) [Chiang97]uses as basis. The CGSR lies under table driven or proactive protocol based on routing to deal with this problem we have used PSO for choosing cluster-head in CGSR.

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But when a cluster member receives more than one ATJ message, this denotes that the node lies in separate clusters but within transmission range of one another; therefore it will be elected as a gateway between these clusters.

Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks

View at Google Scholar J. Thus, the relative node degree of node can be calculated as.

In hierarchical routing protocols, network overhead mainly comes from clustering process and information exchanges between clusters. A mobile ad hoc network MANET [ 12 ] is a wireless communication network, at which nodes use peer-to-peer packets transmission and multihop routes to communication.

Normalized routing overhead is the ratio of the total number of control message transmissions the forwarding of a control message at each hop is counted as one control transmission to the total number of data packets received, which indicates the efficiency of the routing protocol. We assume that nodes and keep their velocity and direction at the duration, and arrives at point at the moment. Once the initial clustering phrase takes place, cluster heads and cluster members must exchange message to maintain the relationship periodically.

Thus, they should request joining other clusters or establish a new cluster. From Figure 9it can be seen that, with the speed increasing, the average cluster head holding time of all the schemes is decreased.

View at Google Scholar M. Otherwise, it denotes that the two clusters just incidentally pass by each other in a short period and it is not worthy of merging. Thus, it will take little time to communicate with each other.

So, more data packets will be discarded. The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both.


For example, in Figure 5source node 1 wants to send data to destination 9. Prior to the cluster initialization, all nodes are in the state of NULL. For example, in Figure 4source node 1 and destination 5 are in the same cluster.

If the source and destination are in the different clusters, the source must take the intracluster strategy. All of them somewhat ignored the scenario, namely, when a node moves out of its cluster head transmission range but still has a link to another cluster member belonging to any cluster head, whether the initial phrase of clustering will be reestablished or not.

Head – Component of Device Cluster Headache. Traffic sources are CBR constant bit ratewith the rate of 10 packets per second and bytes per packet. In Figure 1 athere are two equations: Namely, at first, the source sends a REQ request message to its attached cluster head and then the cluster head will broadcast this REQ to its adjacent cluster head through gateway nodes, and the process will continue until the REQ arrives at the cluster which belongs to the destination node.

Hence the routing overhead will be decreased. If not, node 1 must send data packet to node 5 relayed by the cluster head i.

Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks

Once a cluster head leaves its own cluster or is damaged, the node belonging to this cluster would return to the NULL state. Upon receiving, the neighbors will send RTJ request to join message to the cluster head, and cluster head will send ATJ affirm to join back when agreeing.

When the link between gateway nodes 5 and 6 is broken, gateway node 5 will send a BROKEN message to its attached cluster head 3 to launch the local repairing process. And the cluster members of the attached cluster broadcast cluster member node ID, cluster IDs messages back to the cluster head periodically, where the node ID is the identifier of the broadcasting node, and cluster ID is the list of clusters of which the node is a member.

Meanwhile, a CLEAR message will be forwarded to the source node which originates the packets to notify the change. The coordinates and are the location information sent by node to at two consecutive times andrespectively. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members.

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The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. In order to utilize the network resources efficiently, HCA-R absorbs the quintessence of ZRP to use proactive strategy between nodes within individual clusters and reactive strategy between clusters, not like CBRP to use on-demand strategy between nodes of both intracluster and intercluster communication to purely decrease the routing overhead and HSR, CGSR to use table-driven strategy to communicate in both intra- and interzone to decrease average end-to-end delay but increase the cost of routing overhead unwillingly.

So, its cluster head holding time is longer than the others. A cluster member would dissociate from the attached cluster, if it does not hear periodic broadcast from its cluster head. This indicates the reliability of the network. The simulation parameters are shown in Table 1. Otherwise, source and destination must exchange data through cluster head. Finally, the cluster head including the destination sends a REP responding message back along the discovered path.

In flat-based routing, all nodes play an equal role and can establish a route by local operation and information feedback among themselves easily. The HCA algorithm used for the clustering initialization is described in Figure 2.

Thus, the relative velocity between nodes and is.

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Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. Namely, cluster head 3 takes the intercluster strategy to build link with cluster head 7 through gateway nodes 11 and proticol.

Topics Discussed in This Paper. The CGSR lies under table driven or proactive protocol based on cgar information update mechanism. View at Scopus J. Likewise, the cluster head will remove the cluster member from its list of members, if it does not receive the periodic cluster member broadcasts. Based on the analysis of existing clustering routing protocols and clustering algorithms, a clustering algorithm based on the cost metric and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol were proposed.